Short Synopsis of..
The Greek-Pontian History
for the Hellenic Diaspora
The presence of Greeks at the Euxeinos Pontos, the Black Sea, dates back to early times. Research suggests that in the period around 1000 BC first trading adventures in this area took place, searching mainly for gold and minerals.
The trip of Jason and the Argonauts to Kolchis, the adventures of Ulysses in the country of the Cimmerians, the punishment of Prometheus by Zeus and the arresting of his body to the mountains of Caucasus, the sailing of Hercules on the Black Sea and other Greek myths related to this area, testify the existence of ancient trading routes.
In the 8th century BC, the only occasionally occupied trading posts began to develop into permanent settlements. The town of Miletus was the first to start its colonization politics at the Black Sea by founding its daughter-city Sinope that proved to have great advantages with its useful harbour and its accessibility towards the hinterland. In a similar pattern numerous cities with large populations emerged in the course of time, strong centers with important sea trade and strong cultural influence.
Archaeological excavations and plenty of written sources of the classical and post-classical period have unveiled interesting testimonies about the organization of these settlements, of their economic activities and of the trade and political relations with their colonial mother-cities, with other Greek cities and also with indigenous people.
In the first centuries of their existence the colonies remained in the same patterns of social and political organization as their colonial mother-towns.
The predominance of the Greek cities in the political life of the region becomes apparent by the reaction of the local people who took over Greek culture and Greek thinking out of their own will. In the period of Alexander the Great and his successors, the economic power of the Greek cities peaked. The impact of the Greek culture on the indigenous people remained strong and helped to develop their social and cultural systems.
Under the reign of the Pontian king Mithridates VI Eupator, the Greek language became official language of the many and therefore polyglot people of Asia Minor.
Even in Roman times, the Greek culture in the eastern part of the Black Sea retained its freedom, its independence and self-determination as well as its leading role in the economic and cultural life of that region.
Christianity arrived in Pontos very early by the apostles St. Andrew and St. Peter. Both of them and also later the church fathers profited from the fact that in most of the Hellenised indigenous societies the spoken language was Greek. By the spread of Christianity, Greek culture and national identity was in turning transferred to these people. As a result, a homogenous culture emerged, based on the uniting element of Orthodoxy.
The capture of Constantinople by the Franks in 1204, resulted in the splitting of the Byzantine Empire into small Frankish states, but also in the foundation of smaller Greek empires. Alexios, a member of the dynasty of the Komnenes, and his brother David, founded with the help of their aunt, the Georgian queen Thamar, in Pontos the Empire of the Great Komnenes of Trebizond. The up to that point unimportant city achieved a place in world’s history by this coincidence.
The fall of Constantinople (1453) and, eight years later of Trebizond (1461) mark one of the greatest fractures in Greek history. Immediately after the seize of Trebizond by the Ottomans, many inhabitants of the rich coastal towns and the villages fled.
Most of them escaped into the remote mountain regions of Pontos. Here, out of the sight of the new rulers, they founded new villages and cities, a new and free Greek civilization.
However, part of the refugees settled in central Russia, at the coasts of southern Russia, in the region of Georgia, Armenia and Kazakhstan, where they founded new Greek cities, cultural centers, to which persecuted Greeks were gracefully received also in later years.
This in turn resulted in the simultaneous existence of a second Pontian-Greek civilization, particularly in Russia, which through the whole period of Ottoman reign, grew by migration of refugees.
Only in Russia half a million Pontians existed. By the year 1918 the total population grew up to 650,000 people. On the opposite shore of the Black Sea, on Turkish territory, the history and culture of the Pontians and also of the other Greek-born inhabitants came to a tragic end through the treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
This treaty brought about the forceful expulsion of Greek people living on Turkish territory; a process called «the Catastrophe of Asia Minor» in Greek history.
The criteria for the exchange in the treaty of Lausanne was the religious dependency, which had the effect that Greeks which had turned themselves to Islam in 17th century, did not become part of the exchange. This explains why inhabitants in regions around the Pontian towns Tonya, Ophis, Sourmena and Matsouka still today, 75 years after the Catastrophe of Asia Minor live in Turkey and speak their Pontian-Grek dialect. They remember their Greek despondence and preserve their Greek and even Christian traditions.
Pontians living in the territory of the former Soviet Union are still estimated to be half a million people who stick to their Pontian-Greek traditions to the extent as that is permitted by the Commonwealth of Independent States.
The Pontians managed – like all persecuted and in the first years disadvantaged refugees – to heal the wounds of their fate by diligent and honest behaviour. In their respective new home countries they preserved their tradition, songs and dances, in short: their culture.
Those who settled in former times especially in boarder areas, continue today to be boarder guards, diligent, honest and progressive.
Chronicles of Pontian Hellenism
- 3rd millennium BC Prometheus punished by the gods and banished to the Caucuses for giving fire to humankind.
- 1210 BC Jason, leader of the Argonautic expedition to Pontos, Jason and Medea in Greece.
- 770 BC Militos establishes (founds) its first colony in Sinope.
- 756 BC Militos and Phokaia found Amisos
- 756 BC Sinope founds Trepizond (Trapezunt). Pontos (the Black Sea), from Pontos Axenos (inhospitable sea) is renamed Pontos Euxine or Euxinus (hospitable sea).
- 551-549 BC The occupation of Pontos by the Persians
- 480-470 BC Following the defeat of the Persians in Salamina the Greek cities of Pontos become independent.
- 331 BC The Greek cities of Pontos declare their submission to Alexander the Great. The beginning of the Hellenistic Period.
- 280 BC Mithridates I, “The Builder”, establishes the Kingdom of Pontos.
- 145 BC Mitrhridates the V assists Rome in the third Punic War.
- 111 BC Mithridates VI becomes King of Pontos and in the battle with the Romans is distinguished as a leader of Hellenism.
- 88 BC The First Mithridatic War.
- 86 BC The destruction of Athens by Sylla.
- 86 BC The defeat of Archelaos, General of Pontos in Chaeronea.
- 83 BC The second Mithridatic War.
- 82 BC Mithridates defeats Mourenie, the Roman General who had invaded Pontos.
- 74 BC The Third Mithridatic War.
- 63 BC Pompey occupies Pontos and divides it into the Galatian (Gaul) Pontos and the Polemoniako Pontos.
- 8 BC-21 AD Pythodorida, friend of the historian-geographer Stabo of Amasia, reigns in Pontos.
- 124 AD The Emperor Hadrian visits Trebizond (Trapezunt).
- 5th century AD Wars of the Byzantines and the Persians, Trebizond a large port-passeway to the Silk Route. Pontos constitutes an Issue of the Byzantine Empire.
- 1204 Occupation of Constantinople by the Crusaders. The foundation of the Empire of Trebizond by the brothers, Alexis (Alexius) and David Komneno. Alexius becomes the first Emperor 1204-1232.
- 1346 Defeats of the Turcoman and the Seltzuk Turks in Pontos. Relations of Genoa and Venice with the Trebizond Empire.
- 1402 The Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I (Yildirim Bayezid) is defeated by Tamerlan in the battle of Ankara. The military troops of the Trebizond Empire participate in the battle on the side of Tamerlan.
- 1453 The Fall of Constantinople by the Ottomans. Flooding of refugees to Trebizond.
- 1461 (15.8) The Fall of Trebizond-occupied by the Ottomans. The beginning of the Middle Ages (Dark Age) for the Pontians, during a period when Europe leaves the Dark Ages behind and progress towards Renaissance.
- 1682 The foundation of the Frondistirion of Trebizond. The beginning of the awakening, the revival and the renaissance.
- 1814 The Foundation of the Philikie Etairea, Prince Alexander Ypsilantis, of Pontian descent, is distinguished as its leader.
- 1821 Alexander Ypsilantis crosses the Proutho river on the border of Russia-Romania and calls for the Balkan peoples insurrection against the Ottomans. The beginning of the Greek Revolution.
- 1829 The First Russian-Turkish War – the Pontian Exodus to Russia.
- 1876-78 The second Russian-Turkish War, a new Exodus of the Pontian people to Russia.
- 1885 The First Armenian Genocide.
- 1894 The establishment of the neo-turk party “Union and Progress”.
- 1908 Manifestation of the racist neo-turk movement.
- 1914 Slaughters, deportations, persecutions of the Greeks of Ionia and Thrace.
- 1915 The Armenian Genocide.
- 1916-1919 The first period of Pontian Genocide. New Exodus of the Pontian people to Russia.
- 1919 Kemal Pascha Ataturk lands in Amissos of Pontos. Systematization of the plans to exterminate the Pontians.
- 1919-1923 The second stage of the Pontian Genocide. Death-deportations, death-exiles to Kurdistan-Syria.
- 1922 Forced Exodus of the Pontians to Greece and Russia.
- 1922 Burning and destruction of Smyrne by the kemalists.
- 1925 The Genocide of the Kurds in the USSR.
- 1924-1935 The Pontian renaissance in the USSR.
- 1937 Stalin’s first persecutions of the Pontians.
- 1945-1949 Deportations of the Pontians from the Crimea, the Caucasus and Georgia to Central Asia.
- 1949 Civil War in Greece and the Pontian involvement.
- 1955 Pogrom against the Greeks of Constantinople. The beginning of the Forced Exodus of the Greeks from the historic city.
- 1967-1974 The dictatorship in Greece.
- 1988 Second Pontian World Congress. The beginning of a systematic stuggle for international recognition of the Pontian Genocide.
- 1989-1990 The end of Bipolarity. The New Cycle of the Pontian Refugees from Russia.
- 1994 (16.2.) The Greek Parliamnet recognizes the Pontian Genocide.
- 1994 (19.5.) The Cypriot Parliament recognizes the Pontian Genocide.
- 2000 Pontian oppression intensified in Turkey.
- 2002 George Pattakis the Governor of the State of New York recognizes the Pontian Genocide and May 19 as its Memorial Day. Other states follow in the U.S.A..
- 2004 (1204) The Eight Centcentenial, 800 years since the foundation of the Trebizond Empire.
Pontian Web Sites Worldwide. Please inform me for any broken link(s). Thank you in advance!
- Pontian Org - Pontian Omospondia in Greece Web Page
- Another Pontian web page - Pontos.GR Web Page from Greece
- Pontian web page - "Temeteron" Pontian Web Page from Greece
- Greeks of Pontos - Pontian Web Page from The Hellenic Resources Network
- Trapezounta - Pontian Web Page from the USA now with FORUM
- Greek Pontian Web page - Pontian site from Greece "PONTOS"
- Pontian Research - Pontian Research Centre "EPM"
- Karalahana - Turkish Web site about Pontos
- Pontian web Page - Another page of Pondos to add to the list
- Karadeniz - Turkish site about Black Sea area
- Black Sea Gazet - Turkish Gazet (Mag) from the “Black Sea”
- Pontos History - General History of Pontos
- Black Sea - Turkish Web site from the Black Sea – Dancing Group
- Pontian Things - General stuff about Pontians
- Pontian Edesmatologion - Pontian Edesmatologion
- Pontian culture page - Pontian history and culture web page, good forum
- Pontian Mythology - Ancient Greek – Pontian Mythology
- Lazika - Turkish Trabzon site
- Yet Another Pontian web page - Boaring Pontian Web Page from Greece
- Holocaust of Greeks - Sydney's research unit
- Diaspora - Pontian Q&A
- Pontians - Prof. Kostas Fotiadis Web page
- Crimes - Page on Inhuman atrocities
- Antiquity of Black Sea - Collection of items from ancient towns of the Black sea
- New Byzantium - The Living Kings of Pontos today
- Center for Black Sea Studies - The Danish National Research Foundation
- Great St. Theodoros Gavras - Site about the Duke of Trebizond
- APSALOS - Apsalos City web page
- Dimokratiki Periferiaki Enosi - Haralambidis political web page
- Peace - Turkish Greek Peace and Friendship Site
Pontian Organizations Worldwide
USA & CANADA
- Panagia Soumela - Boston Pontian Club web page
- Xeniteas Club - Chicago Pontian Club web page
- Efxinos Pontos Canada - Pontian Association of Montreal, CANADA
- Holy Institution Panagia Soumela - Ιερό Ίδρυμα Παναγία Σουμελά Ποντίων Αμερικής
- Jenna Constantine - Film Director - Website of Film Director Jenna Constantine, Kaplanikid Productions
- Pan-Pontian Federation USA and Canada - The Federation of Pontian Associations in America and Canada
- EfxinosPontos.org - Pontian Association of Montreal, Canada
- Pontian Society of Greater Cleveland, Ohio - Pontian Society of Greater Cleveland, Ohio
- Panagia Soumela Boston - Pontian Society "Panagia Soumela" of Boston,Massachusetts.
- Ποντιακή Εστία Boston - Ποντιακή Εστία Βοστώνης
- Pontian Society of Chicago - Χενιτέας - The Pontian Society of Chicago "Χενιτέας
- Pontian Greek Society of Chicago - The Pontian Greek Society of Chicago
- CIA facts - Turkey - CIA web site on World
- Pontian Federation of Australia - Pontian Associations of Australia
- Pontian Organisation of Whittlesea - Panagia Soumela
- Pontian Foundation Panagia Soumela of Aust and NZ - Panagia Soumela
- Pontian Brotherhood of West Aust - The Pontian Association "St.George" of Western Australia - Perth
- Pontian Brotherhoud of Sth Australia - South Australian Home page
- Return to Anatolia - Joint program for the Assyrian, Armenian and Greeks of Anatolia
- Canberra Pontian Club - Pontians of Australia's capital city Canberra
- Greek Folk Dancers N.S.W - Dance School specialising in Hellenic dances including Pontian.
- Pontian Eagles Soccer CLub - Web Page of Pontian Eagles S.C of South Australia
- Pontian Federation of Australia - The Pontian Federation of Australia
- Pontic Foundation - Panagia Soumela AUS/NZ - The Pontic Foundation Panagia Soumela of AUS/NZ
- Ποντιακή Κοινότητα Μελβούρνης - Αυστραλία - Σελίδα του Συλλόγου "Ποντιακή Κοινότητα"
- Pontian Brotherhood of Western Australia - St George Pontian Brotherhood of Western Australia
- Pontian Youth Organisation of Europe - Pontian Youth of Europe
- Frankfurt - Pontian Association of Frankfurt Germany
- Schorndorf - Pontian Association of Schorndorf, Germany
- Stuttgart - Pontian Association of Stuttgart - Germany
- Wiesbaden Pontian club - Club web site
- Kolonia - Pontian Association of Germany
- Σύλλογος Ποντίων Αμάραντος Wernau - Pontian Society of Wernau Germany
- Ποντιακή Ένωση Στουτγάρδης - The Pontian Association of Stuttgart
- Pontos Koln, Germany - Pontian Organisation of Koln, Germany
- Σύλλογος Ποντίων Dortmund - Pontian Association of Dortmund, Germany
- Pontian Association of Munich - The Pontian Association of Munich, Germany
- Αργοναύτες Waiblingen - The Argonauts of Waiblingen. Established 1991.
- Akrites Germany - Σελίδα του Συλλόγου "Ακρίτες Γερμανίας"
- Ένωση Ποντίων - Schorndorf - Σελίδα της Ένωσης Ποντίων Schorndorf
- OSEPE.de - Νεολαία της Ομοσπονδίας Συλλόγων Ελλήνων Ποντίων Ευρώπης
- Pontian Youth of EU - Home page of the German youth
FRANCE & SWITZERLAND
- Diaspora Grecque - France - Ιστοσελίδα της Ελληνικής Διασποράς Γαλλίας
- Ένωση Ποντίων Ελβετίας - Ποντιακός Σύλλογος της Ελβετίας
- Southern Greek Federation Of Pontian Ass. - OPSNE Sth Grk Fed of Pont Ass.
- Kostas Fotiadis page - Pontian page
- Euxinos Lesxi Thessaloniki - Pontian Association of Thessaloniki
- Euxinos Lesxi Verias - Pontian Association of Veria
- Euxinos Lesxi Serres - Euxino Lesxi of the Serres area
- Krometes Kalamarias - Pontian Association of Kalamaria
- Rodopolitis - Pontian Association of Rodopoli in Serres
- Pierias - Pontian Association of Pieria
- Akrites tou Pontou - The Pontian LIVE Radio & Club "Akrites"
- Akrites Polikastrou - The Pontian club of the Polikastro area
- Kalamaria - Kalamaria club on its History
- Serra Home page - Serra club in Greece with Mr Nickos Zournatzidis
- Enosi Pontion Polichni - Pontian organisation of Polichni - Thessaloniki
- Euxinos Lesxi of Serres - Euxino Lesxi of the Serres area
- Pontian club of Katerinis - "Panagia Soumela" Club of Katerini, Greece
- Serres club “Efksinos Pontos” - Pontian Club of the epi -state Serres (1 page)
- Pontian Youth of Attiki - Youth of Attiki (EPONA) main site
- Agios Dimitrios Riakioy Club - Pontian Club Riaki St. Dimitrios Momoeria
- ARGO - The Pontian Association "Argo" (Eng )
- Club of Evro Alex Komninos - Club web page
- Elefteriou Kordelio - The Pontian Association "Elefteriou Kordelio"
- Panagia Soumela - Panagia Soumela Church of Veria, Greece
- Ένωση Ποντίων Αργυρούπολης - Pontian Association of Argyroupolis, Greece
- Σύλλογος Ποντίων Πολυκάστρου - Το Πολύκαστρο είναι ο δεύτερος μεγαλύτερος δήμος του Νομού Κιλκίς
- Ακρίτες Επταλόφου - Pontian Organisation in Kilkis, Northern Greece
- Άγιος Γεώργίος Περιστερεώτα - Σελίδα του Συλλόγου Αγίου Γεωργίου Περιστερεώτα
- Λέσχη Ποντίων Νομού Καβάλας - Pontian Association of the Kavala prefecture in Greece
- Σύλλογος Ποντίων Αργοναύται-Κομνηνοί - Pontian Society Argonauts-Comnenes in Athens
- Ένωση Ποντιακής Νεολαίας Αττικής (Ε.Π.Ο.Ν.Α) - Pontian Youth Association in the Athens district
- Εύξεινος Λέσχη Ποντίων Νομού Καστοριάς - Pontian Organisation of the Kastoria region of Greece
- Anatolia College - One of the most prestigious secondary schools in Greece
- Επιτροπή Ποντιακών Μελετών - The Committee for Pontian Studies
- Ακρίτες Πολυκάστρου - Kilkis - Website of Akrites Polykastrou of Kilkis, Greece
- Εύξεινος Λέσχη Θεσσαλονίκης - Website of Euxinos Lesxi of Thessaloniki
- Ακρίτες του Πόντου - Σύλλογος Ποντίων Σταυρούπολης
- e-Pontos - Regular News and Events in blog form. Based in Greece.
- (Π.Ο.Ε) - Παμποντιακή Ομοσπονδία Ελλάδος - Παμποντιακή Ομοσπονδία Ελλάδος
- Σύλλογος Ποντίων Φοιτητών Ν.Αττικής - Ήθη και Έθιμα, Ποντιακή Κουζίνα, Ιστορικά Στοιχεία και Άρθρα
- Σύλλογος Ποντίων Ελευθεριου-Κορδελιου - Σελίδα του Συλλόγου Ποντίων Ελευθεριου-Κορδελιου
- Εύξεινος Λέσχη Βεροίας - Σελίδα της Εύξεινος Λέσχη Βεροίας
- Ακρίτες Σερρών - Σύλλογος Ποντίων Επτάμυλων Ν.Σερρών
- Πολιτιστικός Σύλλογος Θρυλορίου - Σύλλογος Ποντίων Θρυλορίου, Ν.Ροδόπης
- Εύξεινος Λέσχη Αλμοπίας - Πολιτιστικό-Πνευματικό Κέντρο Αλμοπίας. Αριδαία(Πελλας)
- Ένωση Ποντίων Μενεμένης - Σελίδα της Ένωσης Ποντίων Μενεμένης
- Ένωση Ποντίων Σουρμένων - Σελίδα της Ένωσης Ποντίων Σουρμένων
- Αδελφότητα Κρωμναίων Καλαμαριάς - Σελίδα της Αδελφότητας Κρομναίων Καλαμαριάς
- Σύλλογοι Ποντίων Καλλιθέας - Οι Ποντιακοί Σύλλογοι του Δήμου Καλλιθέας - Αθήνα
- Ένωση Ποντίων Πολίχνης - Σελίδα της Ένωσης Ποντίων Πολίχνης
- Ο Σύλλογος Ποντίων Φοιτητών και Σπουδαστών - Η φώνη των Ποντιών Φοιτητών της Θεσσαλονίκης
- Χορευτικός Όμιλος Ποντίων ΣΕΡΡΑ - Pontian Dance Society SERRA
- Efxinos Pontos of Sweden - Pontian Association of Stockholm
- Evxinos Pontos Stockholm - The Pontian Community of Stockholm Sweden
- Russian Pontians - Pontians From The village Stavroupoly in Russia
- Greeks of Tomsk, Siberia - Greeks of Tomsk, Siberia
- Greeks.ru - Ελληνική Κοινότητα του Πιατιγκόρσκ
- The Regional Public Youth Group of Moscow - Cultural Youth Group "Argo" of Moscow
- Greek.ru - A Greek forum in the Russian language
- Espie Home page - Page on Espie in Ponto
- Discover the Rep of Turkey - Interesting Site on Turkey and its doings
- OCEAN RADIO - Listen to Pontian music from Turkey stream
- MACKA - Turkish Web site from Matsouuuka
- Mursal Area - Mursal area web site
- Karalahana.net - Newspaper based on the Karadeniz (Pontos/Black Sea) region of Turkey
- OmerAsan.com - Website of prized Novelist Omer Asan
- Pontian King Mithridates - Article a Coin (Money) of the Pontian king
- Ancient History Sourcebook - The Vast Power of Mithridates. Pontic King
- Pontian Media Watch - Lobby for Cyprus pages
- Pontus - The 1911 edition Encyclopedia on Pontos
- Panagia Soumela Pics - Pictures of "Panagia Soumela" in Pontos
- Pontos Mythology - Pontos in Greek Mythology
- Pontian Coins - Tasmanian Numismatist on Coins from Pontos
- Digital Freedom Network - The Silenced Voice: Φmer Asan "Pontos Culture" Book
- Pontos Culture Book - The Pontian muslims at the target of Turkey
- International herald tribune 25 April 2000 (Kathimerini) - Omer Asan: Greek -speaking writer from Turkey
- The Roman Empire - The The Roman Empire : 18 centuries in 19 maps
- The Black Sea - Article on the Black Sea
- AIM Press - Article on Greeks in Istanbul
- School Project - Article on Pontos from a student of Serres
- Pontos - Article on Pontian History
- Caucasica - Laz - Article on The Laz speaking area within Turkey
- Bir Damla Su - Trabzon Weaved Bracelets
- Black Sea Trip - Someones tour of the Black Sea Coast area
- Bibliography - List of Books about Asia Minor
- Orthadox Turks - Article on Recognition of Christian Turks
- Journal of Mod. Greek - Article on Pontian Theatre
- The last Greeks - Article of Pontians
- A Region of Death - Article on Pontos 1921 -22
- Treaty of Lausanne - The Unfair treaty that was the end of many things
- Greeks in Turkey - Interesting article about Asia minor History
- AMBASSADOR MORGENTHAU - American Ambassador true life encounters in Turkey
- News Times - Pontians in the US article
- Mitropolitis Chrisanthos - Life of Chrisanthos
- George of Trabzon - A article of Georges work in italy
- THE Black SEA - Page on the Black Sea
- Greeks in Turkey today - Greeks in Turkey
- Asia Minor - Site on Greeks in Asia Minor
- Treaty of Serves - Never adopted, superseded byt the treaty of Lausanne
- Christian Monuments - Monuments and sites in Turkey
- Russian Pontian - Interesting article on the Pontian Dialect
- Pontos and Religion - The importance of Religion to Pontians
- Pontos Archaeology - Archaeological excavations
- BIGG Travel site - Another Turkish Tour guide information on the Black Sea region
- Soumela Book - Book on the Monks of Soumela for Sale
- Greek Pontian Theater - Story of the Pontians and their Theater / Life
Pontian Music and Dance Sites
- XENOS Band - Music from the Balkans
- Pontian Music - Pan Music page, very informative
- Kemence -Great Kemence Site and Player
- Folk Dance Association -Pontian Dance and Music
- Fortune City Music - Download Pontian Songs
- Stelios Kazanzidis - Stelios Kazanzidis web page, mad
- Greek Music - Greek Musical Instruments
- Giorgos Orfanidis - Pontian Singers web site dedicated to him
- Lazaros Filipidis - Pontian music lyrics and music
- Giannis Korosidis - Pontian dance instructor Giannis Korsidis site
- Dora Stratou -Greek Dance school and more
- Paraskevas.net - Pontian Singer Paraskevas Lavasas web site